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The five common forms of Clojure keywords

Depending on which libraries are being used, Clojure has a handful of various idiomatic forms keywords can take. When approaching some forms, like those in Datomic, the overall intention may not be immediately clear. For a new Clojure developer, it may also be unclear which form should be the default, and why. This post aims to add some clarity to the subject and it applies to both Clojure and ClojureScript. Along with explanations of each keyword form is a recommendation for when to use it and when to opt for something else.

Brief: the five common forms

  1. :foo, which is just your plain old keyword
  2. ::foo, which is a namespaced keyword for the current namespace
  3. :my.ns/name, which is a namespaced keyword for a valid namespace
  4. ::my/name, which uses the :as alias to achieve the same as form #3
  5. :something/foo, which is commonly used with Datomic and doesn’t actually map to a valid namespace

Plain old keywords

These will show up most often in the Clojure and ClojureScript available on the web. They’re easy to type, they don’t require any dependencies, and they make it easy for anyone to consume. That convenience, however, comes at a cost; they can easily cause name collisions, they don’t convey ownership, and, for those reasons, they can’t be used to name specs with clojure.spec.


(def my-data {:x 1.5 :y 0.0})


Avoid plain old keywords by default. If you have a map of data being passed around, for example, namespace the keywords (and consider adding specs for the data). If you have an “enum,” meaning one in a discrete set of possible keywords, also namespace them. The only time when a plain old keyword’s convenience overcomes its cost is within a simple API or DSL with no middleware, so no possibility for collisions. Examples of this would be:

; Simple keyword arguments.
(json/read-str "{}" :key-fn keyword)

(s/keys :req [])

Namespaced keywords

This applies to forms #2, #3, and #4 specifically. These are necessary for specs. They convey ownership, since they’re tied to a valid namespace, they completely avoid the issue of name collision, and they can help explicitly spell out dependencies. Though they may feel like extra work, since you will need to treat them as dependencies, willy-nilly access to data is not a good thing and being explicit about ownership is.


; Form 2.
(ns my.vector)
(s/def ::x number?)
(s/def ::y number?)
(s/def ::2d (s/keys :req [::x ::y]))

; Form 4.
  (:require [my.vector :as v]))
(s/def ::position ::v/2d)
(def my-data {::v/x 1.5 ::v/y 0.0})

; Form 3. Some declaractive config or scene.
{ [{ :coltrane
           {:my.vector/x 5.0
                                              :my.vector/y 1.0}}]}


Forms #2 and #4 should be your default in Clojure and ClojureScript. Within the same namespace, ::foo is only one more character than :foo, but it carries significantly more data. When you want to access some other system’s data from your app state, for example, you have a dependency on that data. Tying that dependency on a namespace level, through a (:require [my.ns :as my-ns]) allows you to then use the shorthand #4 form ::my-ns/foo. If you detect cyclical dependencies and can’t reorganize, or you need to avoid the require for another reason, then the #3 form can be used. Similarly, within your config.edn, or similar, you’ll use form #3, since you likely have no requires.

Grouped keywords

Grouped keywords (my own terminology) match form #5. Syntactically, grouped keywords are namespaced keywords, but they’re not tied to a valid namespace. Instead, the namespace segment is used for some logical grouping. Datomic uses this for grouping attributes, like :db/id and :user/name. Note that grouped keywords may also use nested group names, like :db.type/long. These don’t map to valid namespaces.


(def order-schema
  [{:db/ident :order/items
    :db/valueType :db.type/ref
    :db/cardinality :db.cardinality/many
    :db/isComponent true}
   {:db/ident :item/id
    :db/valueType :db.type/ref
    :db/cardinality :db.cardinality/one}
   {:db/ident :item/count
    :db/valueType :db.type/long
    :db/cardinality :db.cardinality/one}])
(d/transact conn {:tx-data order-schema})


Avoid these in most situations, but use them where idiomatic. Given that you may want specs for these keywords anyway, I would recommend replacing :db/id with ::db/id and building a my-app.db namespace with the correct specs; use your own good judgement.

Dotted keywords

Finally, some Clojure libraries allow, or encourage, the use of dotted keywords (my own terminology). Dotted keywords are plain old keywords, but they’re specifically used for string building. They’re somewhat more convenient than using strings, since keywords just have a prefix and needn’t be enclosed in quotes. They are less common and aren’t necessarily recommended, but, within a DSL, they can feel quite natural. Due to their uncommonness, dotted keywords aren’t included in the five common forms; they’re included here as an honorable mention.

Example: HoneySQL

Clojars Project HoneySQL is an excellent query builder for numerous SQL databases.

; Keywords like :f.a are used for string building.
(-> {:select [:a :b :c]
     :from [:foo]
     :where [:= :f.a "baz"]}
=> ["SELECT a, b, c FROM foo WHERE f.a = ?" "baz"]

; Keywords are also used with symbols to convey operations.
(-> (select :*)
    (from :foo)
    (where [:= :a 1] [:< :b 100])
=> ["SELECT * FROM foo WHERE (a = ? AND b < ?)" 1 100]

Example: cljs-oops

Clojars Project cljs-oops is an essential library for any ClojureScript being compiled with :advanced optimizations.

; Keywords can be used for accessing members of JS objects.
(oget my-js-obj :my-member)

; Nested members can be accessed using dotted keywords.
(oget my-js-obj :transform.position.x)

; Calling functions is much the same.
(ocall js/Math :abs my-debt)


Keywords in Clojure are certainly versatile. This post has covered plain old keywords, three forms of namespaced keywords, grouped keywords, and dotted keywords. You should now also know their common uses and pitfalls. When in doubt, namespace your keywords to convey explicit ownership of data and prevent name collisions. When building a DSL without middleware or when using keyword arguments, plain old keywords will probably do. Where possible, use clojure.spec!